Cost-effectiveness of emicizumab prophylaxis for haemophilia A with inhibitors: an adaptive health technology assessment for the Indian setting

Date: May 6, 2024
Journal: BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine
Citation: Kar SS, Sivanantham P, Ravel V, et alCost-effectiveness of emicizumab prophylaxis for haemophilia A with inhibitors: an adaptive health technology assessment for the Indian settingBMJ Evidence-Based Medicine Published Online First: 06 May 2024. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2023-112492


Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of emicizumab prophylaxis for patients having haemophilia A with inhibitors in the Indian context using an adaptive health technology assessment (aHTA) methodology.

Design Economic evaluation using multiple approaches aimed at adjusting previously generated cost-effectiveness results based on (1) price differences only (‘simple’) and (2) differences in cost and expected treatment duration (‘moderate’) and differences in cost, inflation and life expectancy (‘complex’).

Setting Typical haemophilia care in India.

Participants Patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors.

Intervention Emicizumab prophylaxis using two vial strengths (30 or 150 mg/mL) in comparison to no prophylaxis.

Main outcome measures Adjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERa), incremental costs and incremental quality-adjusted life years associated with emicizumab prophylaxis from both the health system and societal perspectives.

Results Using the simple ICER adjustment method, emicizumab prophylaxis resulted in potential cost savings from the payers’ perspective for both vial strengths in patients aged ≥12 and <12 years. However, from a societal perspective, emicizumab prophylaxis was not cost-effective. Using the moderate adjustment method, emicizumab prophylaxis showed potential cost saving from the health system perspective. The complex adjustment method also revealed cost savings for emicizumab prophylaxis from the health system and societal perspectives across different age groups.

Conclusion We found that implementing emicizumab prophylaxis for patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors in India has the potential to result in cost savings. This study highlights the feasibility of using the expanded aHTA methodology for rapid evidence generation in the Indian context. However, it is crucial to address certain research gaps, including data limitations, challenges in translating international evidence to Indian context and associated uncertainties. Additionally, conducting a comprehensive budget impact analysis is necessary. These findings hold significant implications for decision-making regarding the potential provision of emicizumab prophylaxis through federal or/and state government-funded programmes and institutions in India.

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